The INTJ personality type has been described as "the architect", "the scientist", and "the mastermind".  Their primary mode of living is internal and intuitive, and secondary mode is external, rational and logical.  INTJs are no more than two percent of the population and are seldom encountered outside their workplace.

They are self-confident and deliberate, and although not natural leaders, they will take command if others seem incapable.  They see efficiency of human and material resources as paramount.  Established rules, procedures, and traditions are inconsequential, and authority does not impress them.  They are diligent workers, and dedicated to pursuing their goals with high efficiency and clarity.  They find problem-solving highly stimulating, and focus on positive solutions instead of dwelling on negativity and mistakes from the past.  They are above all other rationals in contingency planning, tackling complex operations and anticipating alternatives that may arise.  Their primary interest is not just understanding a concept, but applying it in a useful way, with a need for action and closure.  Since they have highly evolved intuitions and are geared towards decision-making, they express judgments and are often convinced they are right about things.  Unless they can develop their ability to express themselves, they can often be misunderstood and seen as arrogant and elitist.
INTJ's are typically more definite and self-confident than other Rationals and have a very strong will. Decisions come easily to them, but they are highly theoretical and must do the research before embracing an idea.  Shoddy research or ideas not checked against reality are disregarded by the INTJ. 
INTJ's have difficulty expressing their internal feelings, insights, and abstractions which are highly individualized, non-linear, and not easily translatable into a form that others will understand.  Therefore, they often translate their ideas into a plan or system that is explainable, rather than try to explain their thoughts.  Out of respect for knowledge and intelligence, they will be motivated to explain themselves IF they feel that someone is deserving of the effort.  This is often the exception, as they spend much time in their own mind and can have little interest in other people's thoughts and feelings.  Because of this, intimacy can be an issue for them unless they spend some energy on the development of their feeling side.
People may have difficulty understanding the INTJ, as they sometimes come across as aloof and lacking affection; however INTJs do have feelings for others, but rarely feel the need to express them.  They may seem set in their ways, but, on the contrary, they are very open to hearing alternative ways of doing things, as they are seekers of the best solutions.
Many INTJs end up in engineering or the science industry, and some will be drawn towards strategic planning in the business world.


The INTP personality type has been called "the architect", "the thinker", and "the logician".  INTPs are rare, making up about one percent of the population, with their primary mode of living being internal, rational and logical, and their secondary mode external and intuitive.

INTPs are master designers and in-depth thinkers.  They operate well with all kinds of theoretical systems, such as school curricula, corporate strategies, and new technologies, striving for elegance, efficiency and coherency. They like to analyze, understand, explain, and then re-design, always considering fundamental principles and natural laws.

INTPs show the greatest precision in thought and speech of all the types. They are masters at seeing distinctions and inconsistencies instantly, easily detecting contradictions, and skilled at framing arguments.  They can become easily impatient with people's casual conversation and often point out erroneous information which can make communication with them an uncomfortable experience, even to those of authority.  Consistency and coherency in statement and argument are all that carry wait with them.  They will learn from anyone, regardless of credential.  They can come across as arrogant and impatient, especially around those with less intellectual drive or abilities; however, when discussing theories about which they are excited or around people they know well, they can be very gregarious and excited.

INTPs live primarily inside their heads, ignoring existing rules, popular opinions and theories.  They love new ideas and can appear dreamy as they spend much time musing over theories.  Theoretical solutions are their strength, whereas they prefer others to implement and manage routine.  Since they are driven to turn theories into concrete understanding for others and turn problems into logical explanations, they can often greatly benefit society.

INTPs are not leaders or controllers of people.  On the contrary, they are typically tolerant and flexible unless defending firmly held beliefs, wherein they're rigid.  They don't respect decisions based on emotion or personal subjectivity, and are often not in tune with the emotional needs of others.  Since their feeling side is their least developed trait, the INTP may have difficulty giving the warmth and support that is sometimes necessary in intimate relationships.  INTPs need to be watchful of cynicism, negativity, and sarcasm they can sometimes carry due to nonsense they see in the world around them.  Since their sensing side is also less than the other types, they may become unaware of their environment, and exhibit weakness in performing maintenance-type tasks, such as bill-paying and dressing appropriately.  Being very independent and unconventional, not caring about traditional goals such as popularity and security, they focus on their analysis and ingenuity, thus being the pioneers of new thought and scientific breakthrough.



The ENTJ personality type has been described as "the fieldmarshal", "the executive", and "the commander".  The ENTJ primary mode of livings external, with rational and logical behavior. The secondary mode is internal and intuitive.  ENTJs make up hardly more than two percent of the the total population.  

They are boundless leaders and "take charge" people, a trait that is demonstrated at a very young age in ENTJs.  Naturally urged to give structure and direction wherever they are, ENTJs will set people in place and direct them to achieve distant goals.  ENTJs excel at the situational organization role of strategic analysis, with the second suit of their intellect being contingency planning.  They are compelled to build organizations and implement their goals.  Their organizational and coordinating skills are highly developed so they tend to be good at systematizing, ordering priorities, generalizing, and summarizing.  They are also excellent communicators of their ideas and visions of where an organization is going.  Their ability to organize is much stronger than their ability to analyze, and therefore, the ENTJ is wise to turn to an "inventor" or "architect" to give this sort of input.

ENTJs often make successful entrepreneurs, fit very naturally into the corporate world, and can become superb administrators in any field - medicine, law, business, education, government, and the military.  They are tireless in their devotion to their careers and usually rise to positions of responsibility and executive status.  They are always goal-driven and often neglect people's feelings along their way to reaching smooth-functioning, well-planned systems.  They reject inefficiency, reduce bureaucratic red tape, dismiss ineffective employees, and are intolerant to repeated mistakes and decisions based on emotion.  

Although ENTJs can be masterful leaders, they also lack consideration of others' emotions and frequently neglect their personal lives in sake of their professional career.  They have difficulty seeing things from another's perspective and impatient with those who see things differently than them.  Without some conscious introspection and recognition of other's feelings, the ENTJ can become intimidating and overbearing.  Their forcefulness may deprive them of useful collaboration to implement their prized systems or innovations, and it can severely affect family and other personal relationships.  Like others of the "NT" type, emotion isn't a strong suite of ENTJ, but because of the ENTJs extroverted nature, their lack of emotion is much more public and felt by more people.

Being quick to make decisions and vocalize them to the world, ENTJs who do not have a well-developed intuition will make drastic and hasty decisions without fully understanding the solutions.  If they do not have a well-developed thinking side, ENTJs will have difficulty with logic and make poor decisions.  If this is the case, their brilliant ideas and insights will suffer from lack of skill at determining how to act upon their knowledge or may show inconsistencies in their decision-making.  ENTJs who have developed in a less than ideal way maybe become dictatorial, inconsiderate, and generally abrasive.

On the other hand, ENTJs do tend to have strong sentimental streaks, which can be very powerful to them.  Since they view emotions as signs of weakness, ENTJs often hide their sentiments.  Feelings and values are not natural functions to the ENTJ, and they may make value judgments to keep hold of submerged, ill-founded emotions, which can often cause them serious problems.  The key to ENTJs is to stay balanced in their lives so that they will not suffer consistent angry reactions from others, or cause suffering from lack of empathy.  Their attraction to lively and challenging conversation, their innovation and long-range thinking, and their superb ability to communicate plans into action are powerful tools for the ENTJ to accomplish whatever goals they may have set.



The ENTPs personality type has been called "the inventor", "the visionary", and "the debater".  ENTP's primary mode of living is external, and intuitive. Their secondary mode is internal, rational and logical.  Like other NTs, they make up approximately two percent of the total population.

As young children, ENTPs enjoy building gadgets and mechanisms, and are naturally and intensely curious people.  This inventiveness persists into adulthood as they continue building social and mechanical organizations with an entrepreneurial spirit.  ENTPs are innovative and always eyeing new projects and processes and implementing them with exceptional pragmatism and efficiency.  Because they do not regard existing procedure or process as the only way to accomplish things, ENTPs bring freshness and new approaches to their work and play.  Always probing for possibilities, they are filled with ideas, but only pursue those that will prove as effective actions or objects. They are confident in their abilities, practicalities, and effectiveness, and a rough idea is sufficient to proceed into action.

 As extroverts, ENTPs are wonderful conversationalists and typically have a circle of friends who share similar activities and ideas. ENTPs are usually easy-going and seldom critical or mean-spirited.  They enjoy listening to the ideas of others and sharing their opinions in an uncomplicated manner; however, they have advanced debate skills and are unyieldingly honest which can frequently make others uncomfortable.  They often play the devil's advocate, and enjoy mental sparring and exploring ideas from all angles in order to learn new perspectives. This sort of intellectual and verbal play can be entertaining to ENTPs, and they can become frustrating and even insulting to sensitive people (and the majority of society) who typically prefer comfortable conversation to unpleasant truths and hard rationality; therefore, this sparring is best suited for more like-minded individuals.

 ENTPs abhor tedious routine and are generally non-conformists.  They make good leaders on pilot projects in order to test their ingenuity, but need a team of people to implement the details.  They are more interested in generating possibilities and ideas than developing plans of action or making decisions.  As generally non-controlling people, ENTPs enjoy learning the human relationships and institutional politics so they can work well together rather than tell people what to do.  In any occupation, they have an amazing talent to rise to the demands of the most impossible circumstances, where greater challenge brings out greater determination to achieve their goals.

Because the least developed area for the ENTP is the sensing and feeling, they may tend to not take care of details in their life and not value other people's input and emotions, becoming overly harsh and aggressive.  Especially as extroverted people who so much enjoy interaction and the company of others, the ENTP is wise to cultivate some sensing and feeling skills in order to live more harmoniously with those around them.



The INFJ personality type has been called "the counselor", "the advocate", and "the protector".  Their primary mode of living internal, taking things in intuitively. The secondary mode is external, dealing with things based on feelings and how they fit with a personal value system.  INFJs make up approximately one percent of the population and are the rarest of all types.   

INFJs are caring and gentle people, and intuitively gifted like no others.  They have a great depth of feeling and inner complexity that may make life challenging.  They embrace love and compassion, and often believe in egalitarianism and the concept of karma.

Orderliness is of great importance to INFJs, and they often focus their energy into the best system for accomplishing things.  They will regularly define and then re-define the priorities in their lives.  In contrast, because they are highly intuitive, they can operate spontaneously.  Their intuition allows them to know things without details or understanding why, and they are usually right and know it.  Because INFJs trust their inner selves so much, their organized outer worlds and intuitive inner worlds conflict.  This causes their organization to be inconsistent, and they are definitely not as organized as other Judging types.

The intuition of the INFP is very strong and can even sometimes be psychic in nature.  They get feelings about things and people, and premonitions that often come true.  Since the majority of society scoffs at this type of phenomenon, and tend to only share their inner selves with those close to them.  Their sharing may be sporadic and lacking the full details of their inner most feelings, and they can become secretive.  Even their closest friends can be surprised by an aspect that will emerge from their intricate, mysterious INFJ friend.

INFJs trust their own intuitiveness above all else, and so they can often become stubborn and disregard opinions of others.  They are also prone to perfectionism and are rarely at peace because they always fall short of their expectations.  They constantly attempt to improve themselves and the world around them.  Their value systems are very strong, and then need to live in accordance with them, never to compromise their ideals.  Although typically easy going and warm, they can also have high moral expectations of their family members as well.  If their zeal for their convictions gets out of hand, INFJs will become exhausted and stressed.  They try to avoid conflict when they can, and if they do engage, it is with charged, irrational, and unhelpful anger.  Conflicts can become internalized in their bodies and they develop health problems when under too much stress; therefore, INFJs truly need to take care of themselves and maintain a balanced and centered life.

INFJs have a strong desire to contribute to the welfare of others.  They are fulfilled by listening and nurturing, guiding the other's personal development as they grow to realize their potential.  They are not interesting in rescuing people, but to get to the root of a problem so people can rescue themselves.  Because of this calling, INFJs make wonderful counselors.  If an INFJ can find adequate time to be alone, they can thrive in an organizational setting where the interactions are genuine and have depth.  INFJs are good at consulting and cooperation, as they value staff harmony and make effort to help things run pleasantly and smoothly.  They are not called to be leaders, but mostly prefer one-on-one interaction, and can enact change to work settings by quietly exerting their influence behind the scenes.

As for other career choices, INFJs can essentially take any path where their intuition can thrive.  They are drawn to areas where they can be independent and express their creativity.  They have vivid imaginations and are natural artists and writers, especially poetic ones.  Drawing from their intuition, they often use poetic imagery in their everyday language and are talented in both written and spoken communication.  INFJs can do work that involves intense detailed tasks, however, they become so enveloped in minutia that they lose the big picture.  When INFJs go this route with their lives, they can become highly critical of others who are not themselves detail-oriented.

As parents, INFJs are consistently loving and patient nurturers and form strong bonds with their children.  Their high expectations can at times be difficult to manage, but their parenting is mostly supporting in nature, guiding their children to do their best.



The INFP personality type has been called "the idealist", "the mediator", and "the healer".  Their primary mode of living is internal, dealing with things based on feeling, or how they fit into into their value system. Their secondary mode is external, taking things in intuitively.  INFPs make up about four percent of the population.

INFPs main focus in life is do find out their true purpose and how they can best serve humanity.  They are perfectionists and work hard to achieve goals they have set for themselves.  Being highly intuitive, they rely on this gift to guide them on their mission to find truth and meaning in things around them, and they seek to find good in even the worst of people and events.  Their observations get sifted through their value system, and they draw conclusions as to whether or not they need to adjust their life path based on what they have learned.  Their end goal is always to selflessly help people and make the world a better place.

INFPs are good listeners, putting people at ease with their thoughtfulness and consideration.  Others can sense the depth of caring behind the INFPs reserve, and greatly value their friendship and warmth.  Kind at heart, INFPs do not like conflict and avoid it as much as possible.  If they have to face it, they are mostly aware of how the conflict is making them feel.  INFPs do not want to feel badly, and so they place little importance on whether they're right or not - a characteristic that can make them appear irrational.

One way an INFP will engage in a conflict is if they perceive their value system being threatened.  INFPs can become aggressive defenders, and this is how they approach projects they choose to adopt.  A project typically becomes a cause for them.  INFPs are not detail-oriented people, but they will cover all the minutia with great determination when fighting for one of their causes.

Details of life maintenance go almost unnoticed by the INFP.  They may not notice weeks worth of clutter that has accumulated around them.  They see these things as trivial and the task of dealing with them as mundane.

INFPs do not understand or believe in impersonal judgement.  Their lens focuses on feelings instead of hard facts and logic. This naturally makes them ineffective at using logic, but if so inclined, INFPs can work to develop a decent ability for logical thinking.  Under stress from anger, however, INFPs can often spew erroneous facts in emotional outbursts. 

INFPs have high standards and are prone to perfectionism, a struggle that permeates the life of INFPs.  They are hard on themselves, often not giving themselves credit for effort and accomplishments.  They can also be hard on others who do not live up to their standards, and often suffer from control issues.  If their expectations are not balanced with the requirements of everyday living, they will become stuck and confused about what to do with their lives.

In the workplace, INFPs make wonderful mediators because they intuitively understand the perspectives and feelings of others and genuinely want to help them.  They excel in counseling, teaching, and other social service professions where they can work towards the public good and not have to rely on hard logic.  They are impatient with routine details, but highly adaptable and patient with complicated human situations.

INFPs also have a gift with language, and better than other types, are adept at learning other languages.  They make talented writers and poets, and have a wonderful ability to express their feelings on paper with metaphores and parables.  INFPs are also natural healers, having a capacity for personal caring rarely found in other types.  A career in the healing arts, such as massage therapy, would be an appropriate fit for the INFP.

INFPs often feel a sense of separation from society, not only due to their introversion and rarity, but also because of misunderstood childhood.  As children, INFPs are dreamy and filled with fantasy, a trait often frowned upon and suppressed by many parents; therefore, INFP children can grow to believe they are inherently bad or silly to be so unrealistic.

As parents, INFPs see their own offspring as kindred spirits, and their warm and loving support is limitless.  Providing a backdrop of their strong value system, they allow their children the freedom to grow into their own beautiful selves.  They take their parenting responsibilities very seriously, and strive to be good role models and maintain a sense of harmony in the household.  The INFP parent does need to be careful, however, not to force their high standards as their children navigate their lives.



The ENFJ personality type has been described as "the teacher", "the giver", and "the protagonist".  Their primary mode of living is external, dealing with things based on feelings or how they fit into their value system.  Their secondary mode is internal, with an intuitive way of taking things in.  ENFJs make up about two percent of the population. 

ENFJs love and truly understand people, and, in turn, people love them back.  ENFJs typically are straight-forward, energetic, and exude confidence.  They can become proficient in a variety of things, especially if it captures their interest.  They like a well-organized environment, maintaining structure and resolving ambiguity.  They schedule work and social engagements well ahead of time and are extremely reliable in their timeliness and commitments.  Having superior people skills, ENFJs show an immense aptitude for bringing out the best in others due to their true caring and understanding nature.  They thrive on giving love, support, encouragement, and helping to make things happen for others.

ENFJs do well in workplace positions where they interact with people.  They are remarkable communicators, highly enthusiastic, and inspirational leaders.  In this way they make excellent teachers.  As teachers, they are able - almost effortlessly and endlessly - to dream up fascinating learning activities in which their students can engage.  They have an amazing belief and confidence in their students, inspiring them to excel to their potentials.  Since ENFJs intuitively understand people and often say the necessary things to make them feel happy and enthusiastic, they also make wonderful counselors, team leaders, and coaches.  

As for dealing with impersonal reasoning, such as facts and logic without connection to humanity, ENFJs do not thrive in this capacity.  They need to be where the world applies to people possibilities, getting excited about plans for the future.  Sometimes this can lead to boredom or restlessness with the present, so staying in roles where they can serve and uplift others will be to their benefit.

In their personal lives, ENFJs desire intimate relationships, and put great effort in maintaining them.  They are typically very trustworthy and loyal people. 

Another aspect of ENFJs is to put other people's needs ahead of their own, and this can be detrimental to their health and well-being.  Because of this they should be sure to spend some time alone, although it won't come easy.  If they are not in balance, being alone can sometimes lead to self-criticism and dark thoughts.  Furthermore, since they are so engaged, and sometimes absorbed, in other people's lives, they can sometimes develop similar "symptoms", and try to work through issues that they may not have themselves.

ENFJs have definite values and opinions with a strong ability to express them clearly and succinctly, but they are fairly reserved for extroverts. They are likely to diminish their beliefs and expressions if showing them would interfere with uplifting and supporting others.  Since they like to be a catalyst of change in others, they can exhibit chameleon-like behavior of those people and set aside their own behaviors as individuals.  They can feel closely connected with their employees, colleagues, students, clients and loved ones; however, because they often do not reveal their true selves, ENFJs can actually tend to feel lonely at a deeper level even when surrounded by people.

ENFJs have an uncanny ability to make people do what they want them to do and get the reactions they are seeking.  For those ENFJs who have had the misfortune of developing less than ideally, they can use their power over others for manipulative purposes.

If they have not developed their feeling side, ENFJs have difficulty making good decisions and rely on others to make decisions for them.  If they have not developed their intuitive side, seeing possibilities and understanding situations becomes difficult, resulting in the tendency to judge things too quickly based on value systems or social rules.  If they have not found their place in the world, they may worry excessively and carry guilt.  Therefore, ENFJs need to remember to maintain balance in their lives and give to themselves in order to truly fulfill their nature - being warm, generous people with a call to enrich the lives of others.



The ENFP personality type has been called "the champion", "the inspirer", and "the campaigner".  They have an external primary mode of living, taking things in primarily via the intuition. The secondary mode is internal, dealing with things based on feelings, or how they fit in with their personal value system.  They make up about three to four percent of the population.

Warm and boundlessly enthusiastic, ENFPs live in the world of possibilities, and their excitement towards life can be inspiring and motivating to those around them.  Often telling stories of grand life experiences, they bubble over with excitement, often tripping on their words as they do so.  They are typically bright, have a broad range of skills, and are talented at most things that interest them.  ENFPs may seem directionless to others, and may change careers many times in their lives; however, their consistency lies in their need to follow their strong sense of values throughout their lives.  Knowing their "true self" and living authentically is essential for the ENFP, and they are continuously learning and adapting their lives to achieve inner peace.  Along with the need to stay "centered", emotional excitement is also important to them, and so they can be very intense and conflicted people at times.

ENFPs are project-oriented, and excel at generating ideas and enthusiasm for the possibilities ahead.  The problem arises when the mundane tasks in the follow-through phase begin to bore them, and they have a habit of dropping projects as new ideas arise.  Achieving their goals is typically their biggest hurdle.  This extroverted type especially needs time alone to center themselves, and if they do, they are more likely to finish what they start.

The difficulty that ENFPs have with mundane tasks runs just as much through their home life as it does in their profession.  They interpret everyday tasks as the worst kind of drudgery and place no importance on what they see as trivial.  ENFPs do not enjoy themselves when when having to deal with such routine maintenance. This can be difficult and frustrating to ENFP family members.

In the romantic arena, ENFPs can tolerate formal dating, but prefer a more casual, free-spirited, approach.  Once they are committed, they will shower their parterner with great affection, and do their best to maintain a fire and spontaneity in the relationship.  For ENFPs who have not resolved their issue with follow-through, romantic or marital relationships may be troublesome.  As ENFPs constantly see possibilities of what could be, they may become bored with what is; however, their strong set of values will help many ENFPs remain dedicated to their relationships.  With that said, ENFPs are best matched with individuals who embrace a good deal of change and excitement.

ENFPs are exuberant and genuinely interested in people and inter-personal relationships.  Their fun-filled spontaneity with dramatic flare is often so refreshing that others love to be in their company.  ENFPs feel a strong need to be liked, and so they often battle that other great need within themselves - the one to be truly authentic.  Again, if they can stay centered, they can maintain that balance.  In that way they will bring out the best in others and intuitively thrive in their relationships.  

ENFPs are constantly scanning their social environments, and no interesting character or alterior motive will escape them.  They are keen observers and have at the ability for intense concentration on another individual.  They pay careful attention to words and actively observe body language and facial expressions.  ENFPs enjoy this ability, but one who is far off balance can become master manipulators, getting what they want through their keen intuition of others and their gift for communication.  They can also intuitively perceive the truth about people or circumstance, but their judgement may be ill-applied and wrong conclusions drawn.

In the workplace, ENFPs are generally very charming and people-oriented and have a wide range of abilities to offer. They interact well with colleagues and employees, and are good communicators in public and on the phone.  They can also work well in team settings, bringing enthusiasm, ideas, and possibilities to the table.  When confronted with strict schedules or minutia, however, they can become very unhappy.  ENFPs need flexibility and to work with people and ideas.  ENFPs do not like dependence, to be controlled or labelled, or to control others.  They, therefore, often prefer to go into business for themselves.  They have no trouble staying productive without supervision as long as they stay excited about what they're doing.  The best profession for the ENFP should offer regularly occurring projects where they only have to handle the mundane for a short time before moving on to their next new endeavor.

As parents, ENFPs are typically fun-loving and warm.  Their lack of maintenance of the household and scheduling can be disconcerting to their children, however, especially for those with strong S or J tendencies.  ENFPs may also lack consistency in parental behavior, shifting from the desire to be their child's best buddy to becoming highly authoritarian.  Their value system is very consistent, though, and the ENFP parent will ensure its prevalence, along with being an example for the joy of living.



The ISTJ personality type has been called "the logistician", "the duty fulfiller", and "the inspector".  Their primary mode of living is internal, taking things with the five senses very literally and concretely.  Their secondary mode is external, dealing with things rationally and logically.  ISTJs make up a solid ten to thirteen percent of the population.

ISTJs are reserved and desire security and peaceful living.  Having a strong sense of duty, they are often serious and dedicated people, highly persevering, and motivated to methodically follow through on tasks.  They can be thought of as true guardians of institutions.  Their clothing tends to be conservative, their speech plain and down-to-earth, and their thoughts based in practicality.

ISTJs are loyal, dependable and honest people.  They have great integrity, and do the right thing for loved-ones and the community.  Seriousness for the ISTJs is typical, but their often bizarre sense of humor can make them a lot of fun to be around.

ISTJs are fact-filled people, storing within their minds tremendous amounts of concrete information.  Theories or concepts are difficult for ISTJs to absorb, however, especially when different from their own points of view.  If someone they respect can demonstrate the significance and relevance of an idea, that idea becomes a fact in the ISTJ mind.  Once this happens, they apply endless loyalty and diligence to support that effort.

ISTJs are strong believers in traditions and laws and become uncomfortable with going against any rules unless they see a strong reason for doing so.  They embrace order, procedures and plans.  ISTJs do not waste time on assumptions, but instead check facts, analyze, come to logical conclusions, and concisely relay their facts in order to come to a decision.  They expect others to quickly understand and take action.  Typically patient people, ISTJs can become impatient and noticeably irritated with ambiguities, irrational theories, and indecisiveness that can keep deadlines from being met.  

In the workplace, ISTJs have a very strong sense of duty and rarely decline work given to them.  Because they always follow through on their promises, people often take advantage of these honorable traits.  Again, these tasks do need to be practical, though, as they have little interest in theory or abstractions without useful application.  They can become very hard nosed about following the rules, and will typically not hesitate to report irregularities to the authorities.  Preferring to work alone, they can work in teams when necessary.  ISTJs enjoy positions of authority, and ensure that they and others are held accountable for their responsibilities.  If they do not develop their intuitive side, they will become obsessed with procedure and doing everything "by the book".

Not naturally in tune with feelings, ISTJs are often uncomfortable expressing affection and can come across as overly reserved or cold.  They may have problems picking up on the emotional needs of others, and because they take their own efforts for granted, they have a tendency to do that to others as well.  Since they have such a strong sense of duty and diligence in almost all situations, however, ISTJs can overcome their reservations.  Especially to people close to them, ISTJs are very caring and supportive in meeting their emotional needs.

ISTJs are amazingly hard and effective workers.  They can take on any task, define, organize, plan, and implement it through to completion.  They are never excuse makers, and obstacles do not get in the way of completing their duties.  ISTJs consider their actions and accomplishments as natural fulfillment of their obligations.  In other words, they expect it of themselves, and therefore do not give themselves credit where most people see credit should be do.  In stressful times, ISTJs lose their calm demeanor and reasonability.  In this state, they tend to see all things that can go wrong, berating their erroneous ways, wrong-doings, and failed duties.  If this occurs, they can fall into depression and visions of doom.

ISTJs are traditional, family-oriented people, wonderful providers, and extremely faithful and loyal.  They put great amounts of effort into ensuring a smoothly running household, and take their parenting very seriously.  Since ISTJs are reserved with their emotions, they express their affection through their thoughtful, caring actions rather than words.  Their caring actions are seen in their communities as well, becoming involved in Sunday school, Little League, and Boy or Girl Scouts in order to facilitate traditional values to the young.  ISTJs also hold dear their family social ceremonies, such as weddings and birthdays, but will become shy if the events become too big and fancy.

The strong sensing and thinking abilities of the ISTJ allow them to have great artistic appreciation and a sense of space and function.  They like to be surrounded by traditional beauty, order, and structure, with neatly furnished and maintained homes.  They do not like trendy or ostentatious surroundings, preferring the practical and traditional.  This is especially true of classics and antiques, where ISTJs embrace old-fashioned over the newfangled.



ISFJs have been called "the nurturer", "the protector", and "the defender".  Their primary mode of living is internal, taking things in with their five senses in a very literal, concrete way.  Their secondary mode is external, dealing with things based on feelings and how they fit into their values.  ISFJs make up around ten percent of the population.

ISFJs are kind-hearted, considerate, and sensitive people.  They are acutely aware of other people's feelings and often bring out the best in those around them.  They have strong ties to their families and friends, and strive to shield them from the ugliness and dangers of the world.  ISFJs value security, traditions, and laws, and are not readily open to change.  ISFJs believe in existing systems and know how things "should be".  They're not likely to support a change in the way of doing something unless shown very concretely that a new way is better than an existing, functioning method.

ISFJs find great satisfaction in caring for the needy and down-trodden more than any other type.  On the surface, they may appear cold, but their sympathies truly run deep, and their quiet devotion is unparalleled.

ISFJs are very observant, taking in and storing information about people and situations around them.  They have excellent memories, but not for trivial, factual data, but for personal reasons.  Years later they can recall even subtle body language and facial expressions if it made an impression on them.  They take notice of subtle likes and dislikes, and this attention to detail makes ISFJs the greatest of gift-givers and allows for self-expression in a quiet and adoring manner.

Like other sensing individuals, ISFJs value practicality and learn best by doing practical things rather than reading about them.  They do not like abstractions.  They are capable learning theories, but once learned, they must work with a practical application of it in order to move forward.  Once the practicality is appreciated and understood, ISFJs will work diligently to complete a task and are highly dependable people.

ISFJs have a strong sense of duty and take their responsibilities to heart.  They are the most diligent of all types, and work long hard hours in the thankless jobs that others try their best to avoid.  Often their dependability and consideration of others over their own needs makes it difficult for ISFJs to decline requests to do things, and they can often be taken for granted.  They will then hide their inner conflict and become over-burdened, their moodiness misunderstood.

ISFJs have a particular appreciation for beautiful things and tend to live in neat and well-furnished homes; however, they are not fanciful or frivolous with their money.  They are, in fact, very frugal, dislike the misuse of money, and will proudly save for the unpredictable future whenever possible.  

As for careers, ISFJs appreciation for beauty and well-developed sense of space and function makes them wonderful interior decorators.  Their value of tradition and the desire to do good can also put them in a workplace with long-lived history, such as social work, teaching, and various fields of medicine. 

ISFJs are intense feelers, but have trouble expressing themselves, especially if their feelings are not positive ones.  They avoid conflict, and therefore, negative emotions can build up, resulting in strong judgements and grudge-holding.  ISFJs need to be mindful to work through and find an outlet for their feelings.

ISFJs may hide the fact that they are aware of another's emotions, but if the other is in need of help, ISFJs will come to their aid.  In this way, they can help others become aware of their own feelings.  ISFJs need positive feedback, and without it they can become very discouraged or depressed.  Especially if criticized, ISFJs are particularly hard on themselves, feeling inadequate and an avalanche of negative emotions will ensue.  ISFJs need to remember to give themselves the compassion and love which they so openly give to others.

As parents, ISFJs are truly warm, caring, and altruistic.  They strive to provide financial security and a smoothly running, tidy household where their children can thrive without chaos and worry.  ISFJs believe in a well-defined parent-child relationship, where they can instill a strong sense of dedication and responsibility in their children, and be a good role model for traditional values.  The transition from childhood to adulthood can be especially difficult for the ISFJ parent, however, when traditions and authorities may be challenged and disrespected.  ISFJs, overall, are understanding parents and can allow their children the space to thrive as their own selves, even if not completely understood.



ESTJs have been called "the guardian", "the supervisor", and "the protector".  Their primary mode of living is external and deal with things rationally and logically. Their secondary mode is internal, where they take things in with their five senses in a literal and concrete way.  ESTJs make up at least 10 percent of the population.

ESTJs are highly social and community-minded.  They live in the present moment of facts and the concrete world, always making sure their personal environment is running smoothly and efficiently with schedules, agendas, and inventories.  They strongly believe in and uphold traditions and laws, and do not tolerate individuals who do not hold these same values.

ESTJs have a clear vision of how things should be.  Naturally being take-charge, self-confident people, they easily step into leadership roles.  Detesting dishonesty and laziness, ESTJs strongly believe in the rule of the law, authority that must be earned, and they lead by example of honesty, integrity, and very hard work.  ESTJs are highly skilled at formulating plans of action and expect to see quick results, preferring tried and true methods over experimentation for new ways.  These traits, along with highly held standards, can make the ESTJ aggressive, demanding, and critical people; however, they are also very honest and don't put on airs, so you will always know where you stand with an ESTJ.

ESTJs take their citizenship very seriously.  Having a strong sense of duty, and a need for social order and security, ESTJs feel obligated to do whatever they can to promote these objectives by having rising positions at churches and civic organizations such as the PTA, and homeowners associations, etc.  They have a large circle of friends with faithful friendships maintained over the years.  They enjoy social engagements such as holiday parties, class reunions, and weddings.  Even though their demeanor can seem a bit formal, ESTJs are easy to get to know and look forward to having boisterous fun with people in their family, community, and work.

Since ESTJs put so much weight in their own beliefs, they need to be careful not to become too rigid and critical of other people's opinions.  Rational thinking is their dominant trait, and so if their feeling side is neglected, ESTJs can often hurt the feelings of others, ignore intimacy, and apply logic where they should be applying emotional sensitivity.  Often viewing themselves in a supervisory position, they like to remain level-headed with their feet on the ground, and would like others to do the same.  This applies to employees, spouses, and offspring.

ESTJs are extremely hard working people.  As children they are role model students who follow directions, respect authority, honor homework deadlines, and always wish to do what is required of them.  Their industriousness and perseverance becomes more important to them as they grow into adults, where they put great effort into their job, marriage, and community.  ESTJs are conscientious and dependable, working towards goals they see as practical and realistic.  If they do not initially see practicality in an endeavor, they will make an effort to understand and see relevance.  If they do see practical application, they will put an enormous amount of energy into understanding the goals and incorporating them into their drive for clarity and security.

In their careers, their reverence for established institutions often leads ESTJs to well-respected organizations such as prominent legal firms, law enforcement, hospitals, and military service.  Because ESTJs are incredibly efficient, structured, thorough, accurate, and timely, they make natural auditors, financial officers, and business administrators.  Of course, with their leadership skills and model citizenship, ESTJs are often moved up into management positions.  There they are highly effective, organizing and leading by clearly expressing their principals, values, and expectations.

Parenthood is sacred to ESTJs, and is handled with the mantra of hard work, tradition, and respect.  ESTJ parents are respectful of their children, and also very strict enforcers of rules and established standards in the household.  ESTJs ensure that as their children grow, so do their daily responsibilities around the home to help maintain orderliness and a secure and stable environment.  Any disregard to this expectation is considered an affront to the ENFJ, and insubordination will not be tolerated.  As they are down-to-earth people, ESTJs do not demand perfection in their children, but want them to develop into respected, responsible adults.  Quite obviously, ESTJ parents will be challenged most when their children reach the age of natural adolescent rebellion.

Keirsey Temperament Website, Portrait of the Mastermind
The Personality Page Website
16personalities Website